Computer Science Department
School of Computer Science, Carnegie Mellon University
Neural Network-Based Face Detection
Henry A. Rowley
Techniques for addressing the object detection problem include those matching a two- and three-dimensional geometric models to images, and those using a collection of two-dimensional images of the object for matching. This dissertation will show that the latter view-based approach can be effectively implemented using artificial neural networks, allowing the detection of upright, tilted, and non-frontal faces in cluttered images. In developing a view-based object detector using machine learning, three main subproblems arise. First, images of objects such as faces vary considerably with lighting, occlusion, pose, facial expression, and identity. When possible, the detection algorithm should explicitly compensate for these sources of variation, leaving as little as possible unmodelled variation to be learned. Second, one or more neural networks must be trained to deal with all remaining variation in distinguishing objects from non-objects. Third, the outputs from multiple detectors must be combined into a single decision about the presence of an object.
This thesis introduces some solutions to these subproblems for the face detection domain. A neural network first estimates the orientation of any potential face. The image is then rotated to an upright orientation and preprocessed to improve contrast, reducing its variability. Next, the image is fed to a frontal, half profile, or full profile face detection network. Supervised training of these networks requires examples of faces and nonfaces. Face examples are generated by automatically aligning labelled face images to one another. Nonfaces are collected by an active learning algorithm, which adds false detections into the training set as training progresses. Arbitration between multiple networks and heuristics, such as the fact that faces rarely overlap in images, improve the accuracy. Use of fast candidate face selection, skin color detection, and change detection allows the upright and tilted detectors to run fast enough for interactive demonstrations, at the cost of slightly lower detection rates.
The system has been evaluated on several large sets of grayscale test images, which contain faces of different orientations against cluttered backgrounds. On their respective test sets, the upright frontal detector finds 86.0% of 507 faces, the tilted frontal detector finds 85.7% of 223 faces, and the non-frontal detector finds 56.2% of 96 faces. The differing detection rates reflect the relative difficulty of these problems. Comparisons with several other state-of-the-art upright frontal face detection systems will be presented, showing that our system has comparable accuracy. The system has been used successfully in the Informedia video indexing and retrieval system, the Minerva robotic museum tour-guide, the WebSeer image search engine for the WWW, and the Magic Morphin' Mirror interactive video system.